Diabetes and a little about Anti-Infectives



The most effective protection against malaria is to avoid exposure to the Anopheles mosquito that carries the disease. All travelers to malaria-endemic areas need to be instructed on how best to avoid bites from these mosquitoes. A significant reduction in the risk of acquiring the disease can be achieved by simply limiting evening exposure to mosquitoes.

Travelers in endemic areas can substantially reduce the probability of infection with certain behavioral adaptations. Wearing clothes that minimize the amount of exposed skin is helpful. The use of insect repellent on exposed skin should also be encouraged. Repellents containing N, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) in concentrations of approximately 30% are effective and safe. DEET has been used safely by millions of people worldwide and is clearly superior to all alternative insect repellants. It is generally well tolerated but has been noted to cause urticaria, irritation of the eyes, or headaches on rare occasion. When in small, enclosed spaces such as a typical hotel room or tent, spraying with an ordinary household insecticide can “knock down” mosquitoes already in the room. Finally, since mosquitoes are not strong fliers, utilizing a fan can keep them out of the air.

Persons who will not be staying in rooms that are well screened or air-conditioned should consider sleeping under a mosquito bed net. The use of bed nets has been reported to reduce the mosquito attack rate by 97 %. Bed nets and sleeping bags impregnated with an insecticide such as permethrin are preferred, since they are effective barriers to vectors even when wholes or tears are present.


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